24 10/100/1000T PoE at + 4 Dual Speed SFP L2+ Industrial Managed Switch w/PTP** V2

  • Support PTP**v2 two-step transparent clock @ all ports
  • IEC 61850-3 & IEEE1613 compliance
  • Goose monitoring; Built-in MMS server for power SCADA
  • Support IEEE802.3at/af up to 30W per port
  • PoE management incl. Detection and Scheduling
  • Enhanced G.8032 ring protection < 20ms for single ring. Supports auto mode, enhanced mode, train mode and basic mode; Enhanced G.8032 ring covers multicast packets; MSTP 8/16* MSTI /RSTP
  • Miss-wiring avoidance & Repowered auto ring restore (node failure protection)
  • User friendly UI, including auto topology drawing and DDM threshold monitoring with dB values***; Complete CLI
  • Support LACP link aggregation, IGMP v3/router port, DHCP server & DHCP Option82 for Port/Vlan based DHCP distribution, Mac based DHCP server, QoS by VLAN, SSH/SSL, HTTPS, INGRESS/EGRESS ACL L2/L3, IPv6, SMS
  • Environmental Monitoring for temp., voltage & current
  • USB slot for edited restoration and auto backup




Datasheet   Hardware Manual   Software Manual
For latest firmware, please send request to support@lantechcom.tw

OVERVIEW

Lantech IPGS-5424-PT is a high performance L2 + IEC 61850 PoE managed industrial switch which provides L2 wire speed and advanced security function for network aggregation and backbone deployment. It delivers ITU G.8032 enhanced ring recovery less than 20ms including dynamic coupling ring, and enhanced mode for easy configuration, comprehensive QoS, QoS by VLAN, advanced security including INGRESS/EGRESS ACL L2/L3, SSH/SSL, Mac based DHCP server, DHCP Option 82, DHCP server, IGMPv1/v2/v3/router port, QinQ* (double tag VLAN) which are important features required in train and large network. It also supports Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) and LLDP for Ciscoworks to detect the switch info and show on L2 map topology.


Lantech IPGS-5424-PT features hardware-based PTP** IEEE1588 v2 two-step function which can allow 24 10/100/1000T and 4 100/1000M SFP uplinks to synchronize the network with precise accuracy.


The exclusive GOOSE monitoring function (IEC packets) can display the counter of GOOSE message transmitted and received by port. The built-in MMS (Manufacturing Messaging Specification) server can help power SCADA to monitor and control switch by data modeling.


Compliant with 802.3af/at standard, the Lantech IPGS-5424-PT is able to feed each PoE port up to 30 Watts@54 VDC providing the connected PD devices. Lantech IPGS-5424-PT supports advanced PoE management including PoE detection and scheduling. PoE detection can detect if the connected PD hangs then restart the PD; PoE scheduling is to allow pre-set power feeding schedule upon routine time table. Each PoE ports can be Enabled/disabled, get the voltage, current, Watt, and temperature info displayed on WebUI.


The IPGS-5424-PT also embedded several features for stronger and reliable network protection in an easy and intuitive way. When the pre-set ring configuration failed or looped by miss-wiring, Lantech IPGS-5424-PT is able to alert with the LED indicator and send out an email, traps or a SMS text. Repowered auto ring restore function (node failure protection) ensures the switches in a ring to survive after power breakout is back. The status can be shown in NMS when each switch is back. This feature prevents the broken ring and keep ring alive without any re-configuration needed. Loop protection is also available to prevent the generation of broadcast storm when a dumb switch is inserted in a closed loop connection.


DHCP option 82 and relay agent function (Port/Vlan based DHCP distribution) can offer the same IP address on port base or vlan base where there is need to replace the new device connecting to Lantech switches to avoid any network disruption. The built-in DHCP Option 82 server offers the convenience of policy setting on the switch. Mac based DHCP server function assigns an IP address according to its MAC address to include dumb switches in DHCP network.


The user friendly UI, innovative auto topology drawing and topology demo makes IPGS-5424-PT much easier to get hands-on. The switch also equips the RTC (real time clock) which can keep track of time always. The IPGS-5424-PT supports DMI interface that can correspond with DDM SFPs (Digital diagnostic monitor) to display the five parameters in Lantech’s UI, including optical output power, input power, temperature, laser bias current and transceiver supply voltage***. The TX power/RX power raw data is automatically converted to dB values for installer, making it easier to calculate the fiber distance. The complete CLI enables professional engineer to configure setting by command line.


Lantech IPGS-5424-PT features enhanced G.8032 ring which can be self-healed in less than 20ms for single ring topology protection covering Multicast packets. It also supports various ring topologies that covers double ring, multi-chain (under enhanced ring), train ring, basic ring by easy setup than others. The innovative auto-Ring configurator (auto mode) can calculate owner and neighbor in one step. It supports MSTP that allows RSTP over Vlan for redundant links with 8/16* MSTI.


The configuration file of Lantech IPGS-5424-PT can be exported in text file so that it can be edited and configured back to switch with ease for mass deployment. The factory reset button can restore the setting back to factory default and built-in watchdog design can automatically reboot the switch when CPU is found dead. The USB slot allows user to backup/ restore configuration.


QoS by VLAN can allow switch to tag QoS by VLAN regardless the devices acknowledge QoS or not in which greatly enhance the bandwidth management in a network.


The IPGS-5424-PT DIDO function can support additional open/close physical contact for designate applications besides Port / Power events, for example, DIDO function can trigger alarm if the switch was moved or stolen. In case of events, the IPGS-5424-PT will immediately send an email & SMS text message to pre-defined addresses as well as SNMP Traps out. It provides 2DI and 2DO while disconnection of the specific port was detected; DO will activate the signal LED to alarm. DI can integrate the sensors for events and DO will trigger the alarm while sending alert information to IP network with email and traps.


The built-in environmental monitoring can detect switch overall temperature, voltage and current where can send the SNMP traps, email and SMS alert when abnormal.


The Lantech IPGS-5424-PT is designed with dual power supply at 12/24/48VDC. Featured with relay contact alarm function, the IPGS-5424-PT is able to connect with alarm system in case of power failure. The IPGS-5424-PT also provides ±4000V EFT and ±8000V ESD protection, which can reduce unstable situation caused by power line and Ethernet.


Lantech IPGS-5424-PT features high reliability and robustness coping with extensive EMI/RFI phenomenon, environmental vibration and shocks usually found in factory, substation, steel automation, aviation, mining and process control. It is the best solution for Automation, transportation, surveillance, Wireless backhaul, Semi-conductor factory and assembly lines.


The IPGS-5424-PT-E can be used in extreme environments with an operating temperature range of -40°C to 75°C.


*Future Release
**Optional
***Optional DDM SFP required

FEATURES

  • System Interface/Performance
    • IEC-61850 & IEEE1613 Compliance
    • 24x10/100/1000T PoE at/af+ 4 100M/1000M SFP L2+
    • 16K MAC Address Table
    • Dual Power Supply Design for DC(9.5V~60VDC)
    • Dual PoE power input with budget up to 720W
    • FAN less design
  • Goose monitoring for port counter (IEC packets)
  • MMS server built-in for SCADA monitoring/control
  • Embedded 24 PoE Injectors IEEE802.3af/at function to feed power up to 30W@54V; 15W @ 48V per port for active operation
  • PoE management including PoE detection and scheduling for PD (power devices)
  • IEEE 1588 PTP** v2 two-step
  • Back-plane (Switching Fabric): 56Gbps
  • 16K MAC address table
  • DDM to support SFP diagnostic function***
    • Automatically convert the raw data into dB values for TX power/RX power, making it easier to measure the fiber distance
  • 10KB Jumbo frame on all ports
  • User friendly UI, auto topology drawing, topology demo, complete CLI for professional setting
  • Enhanced G.8032 Ring protection in 20ms for single ring
    • Support various ring/chain topologies, including dynamic coupling ring
    • Enhanced G.8032 ring configuration with ease
    • Auto ring configuration(auto mode) for single ring
    • Ring covers multicast on different ports
  • Provides EFT protection ±4000 VDC for power line.
  • Supports ±8000 VDC Ethernet ESD protection
  • LACP load balancing to distribute the load*
  • Built-in RTC (Real Time Clock) to keep track of time
  • Supports IEEE 802.1p Class of Service, per port provides 8 priority queues Port base, Tag Base and Type of Service Priority
  • IEEE 802.1d STP, IEEE 802.1w RSTP,802.1s MSTP VLAN redundancy
  • 4K 802.1Q VLAN, Port based VLAN, GVRP**, QinQ*
  • Supports IEEE 802.1ab LLDP, Cisco CDP; LLDP info can be viewed via Web/ Console/ LantechTM InstaConfig**/ LantechTM InstaView**
  • DHCP server / client / DHCP Option 82 relay / DHCP Option 82 server for Port/Vlan based DHCP distribution
  • Mac based DHCP server to assign IP address that includes dumb switches in DHCP network
  • Bandwidth Control
    • Ingress packet filter and egress rate limit
    • Broadcast/multicast packet filter control
  • Relay alarm output system events
  • Miss-wiring avoidance
    • LED indicator
    • Email, traps, or SMS notification
  • Repowered auto ring restore
    • Ensure the switches in a ring to survive after power breakout is back
    • The status can be shown in NMS when each switch is back
  • TFTP/HTTP firmware upgrade; LantechTM InstaConfig** for multiple upgrade; USB for edited restoration and auto backup
  • System Event Log, SMTP Email alert, SMS mobile (text) and SNMP Trap for alarm support; 32 RMON counters
  • Security
    • SSL/SSH/INGRESS/EGRESS ACL L2/L3
    • Port Security: MAC address entries/Filter/MAC-Port binding
    • IP Security: IP address security management to prevent unauthorized intruder.
    • Management access control with priority
    • Login Security: IEEE802.1X/RADIUS
    • HTTPS for secure access to the web interface
  • Static multicast forwarding forward reversed IGMP flow with multicast packets binding with ports for IP surveillance application
  • Multicast static route for non- IGMP camera to prevent flooding; IGMP router port to assign query in ring and for reversed multicast video flow
  • Multicast VLAN registration* for metro video
  • IGMPv1,v2,v3 with Query mode for multi media; GMRP*
  • Factory reset button to restore setting to factory default
  • Watchdog design to auto reboot switch CPU is found dead
  • Environmental monitoring for system input voltage, current, ambient temperature
  • Supports DIDO (Digital Input/Digital Output)
  • IP30 metal housing with DIN rail and Wall-mount** design
*Future Release
**Optional
***Optional DDM SFP required

SPECIFICATIONS

Hardware Specifications

IEEE Standards

IEEE 802.3 10Base-T Ethernet
IEEE 802.3u 100Base-TX Ethernet
IEEE 802.3ab 1000Base-TX Ethernet
IEEE802.3z Gigabit fiber
IEEE 802.3x Flow Control Capability
ANSI/IEEE 802.3 Auto-negotiation
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
IEEE 802.1p Class of Service
IEEE 802.1X Access Control
IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree
IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree
IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree
IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)
IEEE 802.1AB Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)
IEEE 802.1x User Authentication (Radius)
IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol v2
IEEE 802.3t/af Power Over Ethernet

Switch Architecture

Back-plane (Switching Fabric): 56Gbps

Transfer Rate

14,880pps for Ethernet port
148,800pps for Fast Ethernet port
1,488,000pps for Gigabit Ethernet / Gigabit Fiber port

CPU

Marvell 800Mhz

RAM

256M Byte

Flash

128M Byte

Mac Address

16K MAC address table

Jumbo frame

10KB*

PoE pin assignment

RJ-45 port # 1~# 24 support PoE at/af End-point,
Alternative A mode. Per port provides up to 30W@54V capability.
Positive (VCC+): RJ-45 pin 1,2.
Negative (VCC-): RJ-45 pin 3,6.

PoE input voltage & Power feed voltage

Input V

Active Mode A /Output V

45~56V(af)

48V@15W

54~56V(at)

54V@30W

Connectors

24 10/100/1000T RJ-45 with auto MDI/MDI-X function
4 100M / 1000M Mini-GBIC : SFP sockets
RS-232 console: Female DB-9
USB for backup and restore

DDM

Conform to SFF-8472 to show diagnostic SFP with temperature, current, voltage, input and output power

Protocol

CSMA/CD

LED

Per unit: Power 1 (Green), Power 2 (Green), Fault (Red) ,R.M (Green)                                       
Link/Activity (Green), Full duplex/collision(Yellow)), MINI GBIC (Link/Activity )(Green) 

Power Supply

DC model: 12~56VDC INPUT X1

PoE power: dual input for 45~57VDC

Additional power socket (optional):

  1. 85-265VAC, 100-370VDC
  2. 36-75VDC
  3. 85-265VAC IEC320
  4. 12-56VDC

Power Consumption

Full load: 30W/ Unload: 13W

PoE Power Budget

720W

Relay Alarm

Provides one relay output for port breakdown, power fail and alarm.
Alarm Relay current carry ability: 1A @ DC24V

DI/DO

2 Digital Input (DI) :
Level 0: -30~2V / Level 1: 10~30V
Max. input current:8mA
2 Digital Output(DO): Open collector to 40 VDC, 200mA

Case Dimension

19” Metal case,IP-30; 440mm(W)x325mm(D)x44mm(H)

Operating Humidity

5%~95% (Non-condensing)

Operating Temperature

Standard: -20°C ~60°C
-E model: -40°C ~75°C

Storage Temperature

-40°C ~85°C

EMI

FCC Class A, CE EN61000-4-2 (ESD),
CE EN61000-4-3 (RS), CE EN-61000-4-4 (EFT),
CE EN61000-4-5 (Surge), CE EN61000-4-6 (CS),
CE EN61000-4-8, CE EN61000-4-11,
CE EN61000-4-12, CE EN55022 Class A, CE EN55024

Stability Testing

IEC60068-2-32 (Free fall), IEC60068-2-27 (Shock), IEC60068-2-6 (Vibration), IEC60870-2-2, IEC60068-2-30

Power automation

IEC61850-3; IEEE 1613

MTBF

586,450 hours

Warranty

5 years

Software Specifications

Management

SNMP v1 v2c, v3/ Web/Telnet/CLI

SNMP MIB

RFC 1215 Traps MIB,
RFC 1213 MIBII
RFC 1158 MIBII
RFC 1157 SNMP MIB,
RFC 1493 Bridge MIB,
RFC 1573 IF MIB
RFC 2674 VLAN MIB,
Partial RFC 1757 RMON,
RFC 2674 Q-Bridge MIB; Bridge MIB,
LLDP MIB*
RSTP MIB*
Private MIB

ITU G.8032

Support ITU G.8032 v2/2012 for Ring protection in less than 20ms for self-heal recovery (basic mode)
Support various ring/chain topologies
Includes dynamic coupling ring
Enhanced G.8032 ring configuration with ease
Ring covers multicast on different ports

PoE Management

  1. PoE Detection to check if PD hangs then restart the PD
  2. PoE Scheduling to On/OFF PD upon routine time table
  3. Per port PoE status including voltage, current, watt and PoE temperature

PTP** v2

Support hardware-based IEEE1588 PTP**v2, End to End (2-step) and Peer to Peer (2-step) modes in Transparent Clock, with 24 10/100/1000T and 4 100/1000M SFP

User friendly UI

  1. Auto topology drawing
  2. Topology demo
  3. Auto configuration for G.8032(auto mode) for single ring
  4. DDM threshold monitoring with dB values***
  5. Complete CLI for professional setting

Port Trunk with LACP

LACP Port Trunk: 8 Trunk groups/Maximum 24 trunk members

LLDP

Supports LLDP to allow switch to advise its identification and capability on the LAN

CDP

Cisco Discovery Protocol for topology mapping

Environmental Monitoring

System status for input voltage, current and ambient temperature to be shown in GUI and sent alerting if any abnormal status

VLAN

Port Based VLAN
IEEE 802.1Q Tag VLAN (256 entries)/ VLAN ID (Up to 4K, VLAN ID can be assigned from 1 to 4096.)
GVRP(256 groups)**, QinQ*, QOS QinQ*

IPv6/4

Present

Spanning Tree

Supports IEEE802.1d Spanning Tree and IEEE802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree, IEEE802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree

Quality of Service

The quality of service determined by port, Tag and IPv4 Type of service, IPv4 Differentiated Services Code Points - DSCP

Class of Service

Support IEEE802.1p class of service, per port provides 8 priority queues

QoS by VLAN

Tagged QoS by VLAN for all devices in the network

Login Security

Supports IEEE802.1X Authentication/RADIUS

Port Mirror

Support 3 mirroring types: “RX, TX and Both packet”

Network Security

Support 10 IP addresses that have permission to access the switch management and to prevent unauthorized intruder.
802.1X access control for port based and MAC based authentication/MAC-Port binding
Management access control with priority
Ingress/Egress ACL L2/L3
SSL/ SSH for Management
HTTPS for secure access to the web interface
TACACS+* for Authentication

IGMP

Support IGMP snooping v1,v2,v3; Supports IGMP static route; 1024 multicast groups; IGMP router port ; IGMP query; GMRP*

Static MAC-Port bridge

Static multicast forwarding forward reversed IGMP flow with multicast packets binding with ports for IP surveillance application

Bandwidth Control

Support ingress packet filter and egress packet limit.
The egress rate control supports all of packet type.
Ingress filter packet type combination rules are Broadcast/Multicast/Flooded Unicast packet, Broadcast/Multicast packet, Broadcast packet only and all types of packet.
The packet filter rate can be set an accurate value through the pull-down menu for the ingress packet filter and the egress packet limit.

RTC

Built-in Real Time Clock to keep track of time always

Flow Control

Supports Flow Control for Full-duplex and Back Pressure for Half-duplex

System Log

Supports System log record and remote system log server

SMTP/Text SMS

Supports SMTP Server and 8 e-mail accounts for receiving event alert; can send SMS text alert via mobile

Relay Alarm

Provides one relay output for port breakdown, power fail and alarm.
Alarm Relay current carry ability: 1A @ DC24V

Protection

  1. Miss-wiring avoidance
  2. Repowered auto ring restore
  3. Loop protection

SNMP Trap

Up to 10 trap stations; trap types including:

  1. Device cold start
  2. Authorization failure
  3. Port link up/link down
  4. DI/DO open/close
  5. Typology change(ITU ring)
  6. PoE ping failure
  7. Power failure
  8. Environmental abnormal

DHCP

Provide DHCP Client/ DHCP Server/DHCP Option 82/Port based&VLAN based DHCP distribution (DHCP relay agent)

Mac based DHCP Server

Assign IP address by Mac that can include dumb switch in DHCP network

DNS

Provide DNS client feature and support Primary and Secondary DNS server.

SNTP

Supports SNTP to synchronize system clock in Internet

Firmware Update

Supports TFTP firmware update, TFTP backup and restore; HTTP firmware upgrade; LantechTM InstaConfig** for multiple upgrade

Configuration
upload and download

Supports text configuration file for system quick installation; Support factory reset button to restore all settings back to factory default; Support text backup and restore; USB dongle for firmware auto-backup and edited restoration

IfAlias

Each port allows an alphabetic string of 128-byte assigned as its own unique name via the SNMP or CLI interface

*Future Release
**Optional
***Optional DDM SFP required

DIMENSION

ORDER INFORMATION

P/N Model name Description
8388-601 IPGS-5424-PT-DC 24 10/100/1000T POE at/af + 4 Dual SFP L2 plus Industrial Switch
Built-in 1x 12~56V DC + 1x additional power socket; -20°C to 60°C
8388-6011 IPGS-5424-PT-DC-E 24 10/100/1000T POE at/af + 4 Dual SFP L2 plus Industrial Switch
Built-in 1x 12~56V DC + 1x additional power socket; -40°C to 75°C


OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES - Power

Model name Description
EOTH000701 Isolation Power 85-265VAC, 100-370VDC 1.5A, 47-63HZ
EOTH000702 Isolation Power 36-75VDC, 2.5A
EOTH000703 Power 85-265VAC IEC320 socket, 1.5A , 47-63HZ
EOTH000704 Power Input Module 12-57VDC, 2.5A


OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES - DIN Rail Power

Model name Description
NDR-480 Series 480W Single Output Industrial Din Rail Power; 90-264VAC / 127-370VDC Input Range; Cooling by free air convection; RoHS2 ; Operating Temp. -20°C~70°C (ambient, derating each output at 2.5% per degree from 50°C ~ 70°C)
NDR-240 Series 240W Single Output Industrial Din Rail Power; 90-264VAC / 127-370VDC Input Range; Cooling by free air convection; RoHS2 ; Operating Temp. -20°C~70°C (ambient, derating each output at 2.5% per degree from 50°C ~ 70°C)
NDR-120 Series 120W Single Output Industrial Din Rail Power; 90-264VAC / 127-370VDC Input Range; Cooling by free air convection; RoHS2 ; Operating Temp. -20°C~70°C (ambient, derating each output at 2.5% per degree from 50°C ~ 70°C; For 115VAC, please refer to derating curve on NDR-120 Series datasheet)
NDR-75 Series 75W Single Output Industrial Din Rail Power; 90-264VAC / 127-370VDC Input Range; Cooling by free air convection; RoHS2 ; Operating Temp. -20°C~70°C (ambient, derating each output at 2.5% per degree from 50°C ~ 70°C; For 115VAC, please refer to derating curve on NDR-120 Series datasheet)


OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES - Mini GBIC (SFP)

Model name Description Model name Description
8330-162X MINI GBIC 1000SX (LC/0.5KM) Transceiver 8330-187 LTSFP-1000BX-20KM Transceiver (WDM 1550)
8330-163X MINI GBIC 1000SX2 (LC/2KM) Transceiver 8330-180 LTSFP-1000BX-40KM Transceiver (WDM 1310)
8330-165X MINI GBIC 1000LX (LC/10KM) Transceiver 8330-182 LTSFP-1000BX-40KM Transceiver (WDM 1550)
8340-0591 MINI GBIC 1000LHX (LC/40KM) Transceiver 8330-181 LTSFP-1000BX-60KM Transceiver (WDM 1310)
8330-166 MINI GBIC 1000XD (LC/50KM) Transceiver 8330-183 LTSFP-1000BX-60KM Transceiver (WDM 1550)
8330-169 MINI GBIC 1000XD (LC/60KM) Transceiver 8330-184 LTSFP-1000BX-80KM Transceiver (WDM 1490)
8330-167 MINI GBIC 1000ZX (LC/80KM) Transceiver 8330-185 LTSFP-1000BX-80KM Transceiver (WDM 1550)
8330-170 MINI GBIC 1000EZX (120KM) Transceiver 8330-071 125Mbps BiDi SFP 2KM (WDM 1310) Transceiver
8330-168 MINI GBIC 10/100/1000T (100m) Transceiver 8330-072 125Mbps BiDi SFP 2KM (WDM 1550) Transceiver
8330-060 100Base FX 2KM, Multi-mode, LC Transceiver 8330-069 125Mbps BiDi SFP 20KM (WDM 1310) Transceiver
8330-065 100Base FX 5KM, Multi-mode, LC Transceiver 8330-068 125Mbps BiDi SFP 20KM (WDM 1550) Transceiver
8330-061 100Base LX 30KM, Single-mode, LC Transceiver 8330-080 125Mbps BiDi SFP 40KM (WDM 1310) Transceiver
8330-197 1.25Gbps BiDi SFP 0.5KM Transceiver (WDM 1310) 8330-082 125Mbps BiDi SFP 40KM (WDM 1550) Transceiver
8330-198 1.25Gbps BiDi SFP 0.5KM Transceiver (WDM 1550) 8330-081 125Mbps BiDi SFP 60KM (WDM 1310) Transceiver
8330-195 1.25Gbps BiDi SFP 2KM Transceiver (WDM 1310) 8330-083 125Mbps BiDi SFP 60KM (WDM 1550) Transceiver
8330-196 1.25Gbps BiDi SFP 2KM Transceiver (WDM 1550) 8330-084 125Mbps BiDi SFP 80KM (WDM 1310) Transceiver
8330-188 1.25Gbps BiDi SFP 10KM Transceiver (WDM 1310) 8330-085 125Mbps BiDi SFP 80KM (WDM 1550) Transceiver
8330-189 1.25Gbps BiDi SFP 10KM Transceiver (WDM 1550) 8330-191 Dual Speed SFP 100M/1000M-LX 10KM Transceiver
8330-186 1.25Gbps BiDi SFP 20KM Transceiver (WDM 1310) All SFP P/N# ended with D are with DDM function